The Liber feudorum maior, the late-twelfth-century cartulary of the counts of Barcelona, is at once one of the earliest surviving lay cartularies and a rare example. Source, Buscar a partir de la url ; escribir “Liber feudorum maior” en el campo “Buscar” y seguir los. The Liber feudorum maior (or LFM, medieval Latin for “great book of fiefs”), originally called the Liber domini regis (“book of the lord king”), is a late.

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The Liber feudorum maior or LFMmedieval Latin for “great book of fiefs “originally called the Liber domini regis “book of the lord king”is a late twelfth-century illuminated cartulary of the Crown of Aragon.

It contained documents dating as far back as the tenth century. It is profusely illustrated in a Romanesque stylea rarity for utilitarian documents. The LFM is an indispensable source for the institutional history of the emerging Principality of Catalonia. Only of the original folios of the LFM remain, but only ninety-three of the lober documents have been completely lost, and thus a near-complete reconstruction of its contents remains possible.

The prologue to the document, written by Ramon de Caldes, describes the work as being in duo volumina two volumesbut its present division dates only from its re-binding in the nineteenth century. Whether the planned second volume was ever bound or even begun cannot be known. The original volumes sustained damage during the French Revolution and the Libeg invasion of Spainbut their indices one dating back to survived, as well as most of the parchment charters that were copied in the Liber.

File:Liber feudorum maior.jpg

Its modern editor, Francisco Miquel Rosell, has reconstructed the order and rubrics of the documents. Two smaller books of fiefs related to the LFM project are also preserved. The Liber feudorum Ceritaniae concentrates on Cerdany and Roussillon and may represent a failed initiative to create regional cartularies modelled on the Mair.

The Liber feudorum formae minoris is a continuation of the LFM including documents from the early thirteenth century. Only two other secular cartularies survive from the same period: The compilation of the LFM was probably related to Alfonso’s renewed drive to control the castellans of his domains. In —80 he launched a series of lawsuits for power of access to various castles. Incomital charters that had thitherto been in the hands of Ramon de Gironella, the count’s vicar in Gironawere handed over to Guillem de Bassa; many of these later appeared in the Llber.

Accepting the libsr at face value, Francisco Miquel Rosell assumed that the work was presented to Alfonso II and that it was therefore completed before the count’s death in Three charters from the final four years of Alfonso’s reign are contained in the LFMbut in a hand distinct from that of its two main scribes. It is also possible that the work that had begun as early as was renewed sometime around — Bisson connects any renewed effort on the part of Ramon de Caldes before his retirement from court in late with a serious of challenges to the maiorr of Alfonso II.

The prologue was written in anticipation and a second volume was never begun, only planned. Both Bisson and Adam Kosto agree that the work was completed in and presented inbut that it was never a “completed”, rather fedorum “closing of the selection of instruments” was the “beginning of continuous work”.

The LFM was treated by its modern editor, Rosell, as libed more than veudorum written record of the aggrandisement of the domain of the counts of Barcelona. On this view, Alfonso “slowed the Reconquest ” in order to concentrate on unifying his various realms into a single crown. The LFM introduced no feudormu principles of feudal organization”, but it does represent “a more abstract notion of comital and royal power”. The cartulary is not a record of the union of Catalonia with Aragon.

Bisson writes that in the LFM “feudal principles, applied to serve administrative [ The rubrics and section headings are evidence of the ambiguity of Alfonso’s position and that of the various regions.

While Aragon is termed a regnum kingdom, realmCerdanya and Roussillon are comitati countiesTarragona is listed as a civitas cityand Provence and the County of Melgueil are not described.

In other cases charters are named for the lord that issued them or confirmed them. The documents in the LFM are organised by county, viscountyor lineage usually associated with a given castle or estate. Sometimes sections are indicated by rubrics. Sections and subsections were separated by blank folios, which Rosell thought were intended for earlier documents that were yet to be retrieved, but which others suggested were intended for expansion.

In fact both new documents and earlier ones were added to blank folios. Within a given subsection the documents are usually ordered chronologically, and sometimes grouped by blank folios into periods. A comital archive for the counts of Barcelona is only mentioned for the first time in Ramon de Caldes refers to omnia instrumenta propria et inter vos vestrosque antecessores ac homines vestros confecta “all of your own documents and those drawn up between you and your ancestors and your men”but the location of these documents is uncertain.


The archive sent by Ramon de Gironella to Guillem de Bassa contained mostly documents pertaining to the County of Girona, for instance. The copyists of the LFM may have made use of an itinerant commission which collected or copied charters throughout Alfonso’s domains, where needed. Though it is rare as an example of an illuminated cartulary, the LFM is not the only example from the twelfth century, nor even from Spain.

In fact, there exist four Spanish exemplars from the first half of the century: Kosto has identified two styles and thus two hands at work in the miniatures of the LFMone conservative and local, the other expert and international.

Joan Ainaud dated the painting to the first quarter of the thirteenth century after the completion of the textbut it was probably planned from the start. The LFM preserves 79 images, though there were once more.

They are among the earliest depictions of the act of homage hominiumof the placing of a vassals hands between those of his lord. All these images reinforced the royal conception of power and the subordination of vassals. The first two images of the cartulary, however, are counter the hierarchical spirit of the rest. In the first, Alfonso and Ramon, seated at equal levels, with a scribe at work in the background, gesture towards a pile of charters.

File:Liber Feudorum – Wikimedia Commons

The charters are the centre of attention. The king is depicted as working administering his realm. The king and queen, too, appear engaged in conversation. The image is probably a depiction of the court and its culture, which was a home to many troubadours. Medieval Latin — Despite the clerical origin of many of its authors, medieval Latin should not be confused with Ecclesiastical Latin.

There feuvorum no consensus on the exact boundary where Late Latin ends. Medieval Latin had a vocabulary, which freely borrowed from other sources. Greek provided much of the vocabulary of Christianity.

The various Germanic languages spoken by the Germanic tribes, who invaded mior Europe, were major sources of new words. Germanic leaders became the rulers of parts of the Roman Empire that they conquered, other more ordinary words were replaced by coinages from Vulgar Latin or Germanic sources because the classical words feurorum fallen into disuse.

Liber Feudorum Maior Stock Photos & Liber Feudorum Maior Stock Images – Alamy

Latin was also spread to such as Ireland and Germany. Works written in the lands, where Latin was a language with no relation to the local vernacular, also influenced the vocabulary.

English words like abstract, subject, communicate, matter, probable, the high point of the development of medieval Latin as a literary language came with the Carolingian renaissance, a rebirth of learning kindled under the patronage of Charlemagne, king of the Franks.

On the other hand, strictly speaking there was no form of medieval Latin. Every Latin author in the period spoke Latin as a second language, with varying degrees of fluency, and syntax, grammar. For instance, rather than following the classical Latin practice of placing the verb at the end. Unlike classical Latin, where esse was the auxiliary verb, medieval Latin writers might use habere as an auxiliary, similar to constructions in Germanic. The accusative and infinitive construction in classical Latin was often replaced by a clause introduced by quod or quia.

This is almost identical, for example, to the use of que in similar constructions in French. In every age from the late 8th century onwards, there were learned writers who were familiar enough with classical syntax to be aware that these forms and usages were wrong, however the use of quod to introduce subordinate clauses was especially pervasive and is found at all levels.

That resulted in two features of Medieval Latin compared with Classical Latin.

First, many attempted to show off their knowledge of Classical Latin by using rare or archaic constructions. Illuminated manuscript — An illuminated mxior is a manuscript in which the text is supplemented with such decoration as initials, borders and miniature illustrations.

Comparable Far Eastern and Mesoamerican works are described as painted, islamic manuscripts may be referred to as illuminated, illustrated or painted, though using essentially the same techniques as Western works.

This article covers the technical, social and economic history of the subject, for an art-historical account, the earliest surviving substantive illuminated manuscripts are from the period toproduced in the Kingdom of the Ostrogoths and the Eastern Roman Empire.

The significance of these works lies not only in their inherent artistic and historical value, had it not libr for the monastic scribes of Late Antiquity, most literature of Greece and Rome would have perished in Europe. As it was, the patterns of textual survivals were shaped by their usefulness to the severely constricted literate group of Christians, the majority of surviving manuscripts are from the Middle Ages, although many survive from the Renaissance, along with a very limited number from Late Antiquity.

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The majority of manuscripts are of a religious nature. However, especially from the 13th century onward, a number of secular texts were illuminated. Most illuminated manuscripts were created as codices, which had superseded scrolls, a very few illuminated manuscript fragments survive on papyrus, which does not last nearly as long as vellum or parchment.

Most medieval manuscripts, illuminated or not, were written on parchment, beginning in the late Middle Ages manuscripts began to be produced on paper.

Illuminated manuscripts continued to be produced in the early 16th century, Manuscripts are among the most common items to survive from the Middle Ages, many thousands survive.

They are also the best surviving specimens of medieval painting, indeed, for many areas and time periods, they are the only surviving examples of painting.

There are a few examples from later periods, the type of book that was most often heavily and richly illuminated, sometimes known as a display book, varied between periods.

In the first millennium, these were most likely to be Gospel Books, such as the Lindisfarne Gospels, the Romanesque period saw the creation of many huge illuminated complete Bibles — one in Sweden requires three librarians to lift it. Reudorum Psalters were also illuminated in both this and the Gothic period. Finally, the Book of Hours, very commonly the maoor book of a wealthy layperson, was often richly illuminated in the Gothic period.

Other books, both liturgical and not, continued to be illuminated at all periods, the Byzantine world also continued to produce mauor in its own style, versions of which spread to other Orthodox and Eastern Christian areas.

See Medieval art for other regions, periods and types, reusing parchments by scraping the surface and reusing them was a common practice, the traces often left behind of the original text are known as palimpsests. The Gothic period, which saw an increase in the production of these beautiful artifacts, also saw more secular works such as chronicles.

Romanesque art — Romanesque art is the art of Europe from approximately AD to the rise of the Gothic style in the 13th century, or later, depending on region.

The liger period is known as the Pre-Romanesque period, Romanesque art was also greatly influenced by Byzantine art, especially in painting, and by the anti-classical energy of the decoration of the Insular art of the British Isles.

From these elements was forged a highly innovative and coherent style, outside Romanesque architecture, the art of the period was characterised by a very vigorous style in both sculpture and painting. In illuminated manuscripts, libre which the most lavishly decorated manuscripts of the period were mostly bibles or psalters, more originality is seen, as new scenes needed to be depicted. The same applied to the capitals of columns, never more exciting than in this period, colours, which can be seen as bright in the 21st century only in stained glass and well-preserved manuscripts, tended to be very striking, and mostly primary.

Stained glass became widely used, although mxior are sadly few, monasteries continued to be extremely important, especially those of the expansionist new orders of the period, the Cistercian, Cluniac, and Carthusian, which spread across Europe. No Romanesque royal palace has really survived, the lay artist was becoming a valued figure — Nicholas of Verdun seems to have been known across the continent. Most masons and goldsmiths were now lay, and lay painters such as Master Hugo seem to have been in the majority, at least of those doing the fekdorum work, the iconography of their church ceudorum was no doubt arrived at in consultation with clerical advisors.

Metalwork, including decoration kiber enamel, became very sophisticated, many spectacular shrines made to hold relics have survived, of which the best known is the Shrine of the Three Kings at Cologne Cathedral by Nicholas of Verdun and others. The Stavelot Triptych and Reliquary of St. Maurus are other examples of Mosan enamelwork, large reliquaries and altar frontals were built around a wooden frame, but smaller caskets were all metal and enamel.