Kausitaki (Shankhayana) Brahmana Kaushitaki Brahmana associated with Baskala Shakha of Rigveda and also called Sankhyayana Brahmana. It is divided. Thus he, the knower of Brahman, devoid of good deeds, devoid of evil deeds Here ends the Kaushitaki-Brahmana Upanishad, as contained in the Rig-Veda. Posts about Kaushitaki Brahmana written by margie parikh.
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The Kaushitaki Upanishad Sanskrit: It was included in Robert Hume’s list of 13 Principal Upanishads,  and lists as number 25 in the Muktika canon of Upanishads. The Kausitaki Aranyaka comprises 15 chapters and four of these chapters form the Kaushitaki Upanishad.
The chronology of Kaushitaki Upanishad, like other Upanishads, is unclear. It is based on an analysis of archaism, style and repetitions across texts, driven by assumptions about likely evolution of ideas, and on presumptions about which philosophy might have influenced which other Indian philosophies.
Kaushitaki Upanishad was probably composed before the middle of the 1st millennium BCE. Ranade  places Kaushitaki chronological composition in the third group of ancient Upanishads, composed about the time of Aitareya and Taittiriya Upanishads. The Kaushitaki Upanishad is part of the Rig veda, but it occupies different chapter numbers in the Veda manuscripts discovered in different parts of India. Three sequences are most common: The Kausitaki Upanishad is a prose text, divided into four chapters, containing 6,  15, 9 and 20 verses respectively.
There is some evidence that the Kaushitaki Upanishad, in some manuscripts, had nine chapters, but these manuscripts are either lost or yet to be found.
In the first chapter of the Kausitaki Upanishad, rebirth and transmigration of Atman Soul is asserted as existent, and that one’s life is affected by karmaand then it asks whether there is liberation and freedom from the cycles of birth and rebirth. Verse 2 of the first chapter states it as follows abridged. Born am I and again reborn, As twelvefold year, as thirteenth beyond the moon, From the twelvefold, from the thirteenfold father, The this one and the other versus this to know, Until ye, seasons, me led to death by virtue of this truth, by virtue of this TapasI am the seasons, I am the child of the seasons!
In verse 6 of chapter 1, the Kausitaki Upanishad asserts that a man is the season naturesprouts from season, rises from a cradle, reborn through his wife, as splendour. He declares, “Man is the Self is every living being. You are the self of every being. What you are, I am.
Kaushitaki Brahmana | Through the Sands of Life
Edward Cowell translates the above verses that declare the “Oneness in Atman and Btahmana principle as follows. The soul answers, when asked by Brahma, “Who art thou? What thou art, that am I. Brahma says to him, “Who am I? To the extent a person realizes that his being is identical with Brahmanto that extent he is Brahman.
He doesn’t need to pray, states Kausitaki Upanishad, the one who realizes and understands his true nature as identical with the universe, the Brahman. In verse 5 of the second chapter, the Kausitaki Upanishad asserts that “external rituals such as Agnihotram offered kaushitakii the morning and in the evening, must be replaced with inner Agnihotram, the ritual of introspection”.
Paul Deussen states that this chapter reformulates religion, by declaring, “religion is supposed not to consist in the observance of the external cult; but that which places the whole life, with every breathe, in its service.
Not rituals, but knowledge should be one’s pursuit. After asserting Atman Self, Soul as personified God in first two chapters, the Kausitaki Upanishad develops the philosophical doctrine of the Atman in the third chapter.
Kaushitaki-Brahmana Upanishad – Translation
Then it posits that freedom and liberation comes not from sense-objects, not from sense-organs, not from subjective psychological powers of mind, but that it comes from “knowledge and action” alone.
The one who knows Self, and acts harmoniously with the Self, solemnly exists as the highest God which is that Self Atman itself. The chapter presents the metaphysical definition of a human being as Consciousness, Atman, Soul.
Kasuhitaki verse 3, it develops the foundation for this definition by explaining kzushitaki speech cannot define a human being, because we see human beings midst us who are born without the power of speech dumb kaushitaku that sight cannot define a human being, because we see human beings midst us who are born without the ability of sight blind ; that hearing cannot define a human being, because we see human beings midst us who are born without the ability to hear deaf ; that mind cannot define a human being, because we see human beings midst us who are without the power of clear thinking foolishness ; that arms or legs cannot define a human being, because we see human beings midst us who lose their arms or legs cut in an accident.
And that which is conscious, has life-force. In the last verses of chapter 3, the Kaushitaki Upanishad asserts that to really know someone, one must know his soul.
Know the soul of the subject, not just kqushitaki objects. The structure of its argument is as follows abridged . One should not desire to understand the speech but should desire to know him who speaks, One should not desire to understand the smell described by a person but should desire to know him who smells, One should not desire to understand the form of the person but should desire to know him who sees the form, One should not desire to understand the sound described but should desire to know him who hears, One should not desire to understand the food description but should desire to know him who tastes, One should not desire to understand the deed but should desire to know him who performs the deed, One should not desire to understand pleasure and pain from excitation but should desire to know him who feels the pleasure and pain, One should not desire to understand the opinion and thinking but should desire to know him who opines and thinks.
Because if there were no elements of consciousness, there would be no elements of material being Because if there were no elements of material being, there would be no elements of consciousness Because any one phenomenon does not come about through the one without the other, Because Prana life-force is also the Prajnatman knowledge-selfis bliss, is not ageing, is immortal This is my Atman soul which one should know, O!
Edward Cowell translates these last verses as, “Prana is prajna, it is joy, it is eternally young, it is immortal.
This is the guardian of the world, this is the king of the world, this is the lord of the world, this is my soul. Thus let a man know, thus let a man know.
The fourth chapter of Kausitaki Upanishad kausgitaki on the third chapter, but it peculiarly varies in various manuscripts of Rig veda discovered in Indian subcontinent. This suggests that this chapter may be an addition of a later era. Despite the variations, the central idea is similar in all recensions so far.
The chapter offers sixteen themes in explaining what Brahman Atman is, which overlaps with the twelve found in Chapter 2 of Brihadaranyaka Upanishad. The Kaushitaki Upanishad has been translated by many scholars, but the translations vary because the manuscripts used vary. It was translated into Persian in medieval times, as Kokhenk;  however, the manuscript used for that translation has been lost. From Wikipedia, the free kaushitakl.
Part of a series on Hindu scriptures and texts Shruti Smriti Vedas. Chronology of Hindu texts. Annotated Text and Translation. Yoga, Karma, and Rebirth: A Brief History and Philosophy. Original Sanskrit text in Devanagari.
Rigveda Yajurveda Samaveda Atharvaveda. Samhita Brahmana Aranyaka Upanishad.
Kauwhitaki scriptures Bhagavad Gita Agamas. Timeline Chronology of Hindu texts. Sanskrit Wikisource has original text related to this article: