Three Shadow Plays by Muhammad Ibn Daniyal. Poetry & Literature. Author: Paul Kahle Year: ISBN: Language: English Paperback. While Ibn Daniyal is known to have entertained powerful men with his humor and antics, inchding the sultan al-Ashraf Khalil (r. ) and the emir Sayf. Badawi believed that Ibn Daniyal’s plays played an essential role in the formation of Arabic drama. He analysed three of them: Tayf alkhayal, ʻAjib wa-gharib.
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In this conclusion, the audience is re-introduced to the actual reli- gious discourse that surrounds it, to real notions of death and repentance, as opposed to satirical or inverted ones.
He returned to supporting himself by writing panegyric poems to celebrated less exalted sponsors—lower-level political, merchants, friends, and religious leaders.
By the time of Ibn Daniyal the puppet theatre was a well-established form of popular and court entertainment, though of little literary respectability. Trench, Trubner and Co.
The Arab Aristophanes
Inasmuch as the merchants of Our Territory shall likewise be cared for in the territory of the realm of the Emperor, Lord Michael, and find no injustice or oppression from anyone in the territory of the realm of the Emperor, Lord Michael.
In other words, Egypt’s underworld comes to represent the remnants of what was once, before the enforcement of strict laws, an almost heavenly Hell, a place lacking all moral good, whose inhabitants freely indulged in and now boast about forbidden acts, but without the ele- ment of judgment or punishment.
I2 Badci’i’ al-zuhur fi-waqaJi’ al-duhur, Vol. It is no longer a world of inversions.
Three Shadow Plays by Muhammad Ibn Daniyal
See A History of Arabic Drama, pp. The moralists are hypocrites, excessive in enforcing a distorted version of the moral code and yet immoral themselves.
Thankfully the authors of the post did do their homework, so thanks. How can one argue that this play satirizes the depraved in Egyptian society, when most of the debauchery seems to have taken place in the past? This rhyming prose, written with much artistic ubn, carries forth almost all the action of the play, so that the play might be considered a dramatic m a q h a or a maqama-esque drama.
On the one hand, the faqih’s “conversion” to the religion of depravity manages to mock the depraved, a group so morally lost that they are consistently depicted as a separate, Satanic religious school of thought.
Perhaps these plays are best left to the disembodied shadows, floating across a curtain— without names, without agendas, and without the burden of identity politics.
Immediately after this passage, we return to a series of scenes that much more clearly suggest an Aristophanic structure.
Urnm Rashid arranges for the prince to marry a woman who-as Wi I discovers on his wedding day-not only has a laugh like the braying of a donkey, a adniyal like a mountain, lips like a camel, teeth like a crocodile, and breath like a latrine, but also has a grandson obsessed with private parts.
Ibn Dāniyāl – Brill Reference
In rhe Vicinity of the Righreous: It is aIso, and equalIy as important, a play dominated by satiric Ianguage. The problematic issue throughout the work has not been morality in its pure sense, in the sense of a general understanding of “good,” but power-morality, morality as enforced and as a device of the sultan.
Holt, have studied the diplomatic and trade relationships between the two new dynasties that came to power in the Middle East in theMichael VIII Palaeologus in Constantinople and the Mamluk rulers in Cairo. Rather, the playwright uses the illusory and comical nature of ihn to create an entirely inverted society, where evil and sin are praiseworthy, and virtue is nonexistent.
Also see the Qur’sn In spite of protests among the ‘ulama’ that forced conversions went against Islamic law, the Marnlilks did indeed use threats of dismissal to pressure the Copts they employed to become Muslims; see The Middle East in the Middle Ages, p.
The unreal nature of shadow theater not only allows for satiric freedom, but also connects the play-even if ironically- to the Islamic mystical tradition. For a summary of Dryden’s theory of satire see Dustin Griffin, Satire: Once the physician’s comic elegy is completed, however, the mood takes a sudden shift, lacking any comic suggestions whatsoever.
The Arab Aristophanes
Genre and Form Before any discussion of Ibn Daniyal’s dnaiyal method can take place, the ‘ question of genre must be addressed. They are literary, social and historical documents, unique of their kind, presenting a veritable gallery of characters, high and low, from daniyla sides of Egyptian life.
In the maqcimdt of al- Harnadhiini and al-Hariri, the title “shaykh” is given to Iblis, who serves as a patron to poets and ivn. A number of scholars, but particularly P. While al-Hamadhiini and al-HarM do not use the word in exactly the same sense, the idea of an evil figure presented as august is at the heart of the humor of all three writera That is, the significance of an outwardly noble yet inwardly ddiabolical agent and, correspondingly, the themes of hypocrisy and inverted piety are as pertinent to the maqama genre as they are to Daniyall.
It is certainly a play, but it reads like a maqdrna, especially since the play’s stage directions or producer’s notes are written in the same rhyming prose or saj’ that characterizes the maqama. See also Three Shadow Plays, Introduction, p. His diction also distances him from schol- arly or official representations of religion. Inversions of the Sacred: Guo reads the final line quoted here differently, trans- lating a!
If such phi- losophizing seems somewhat out of place for the raunchy and scatological satire of Ibn Dgniyiil, the reader should bear in mind that the playwright asks his audience to look for more profound truths in his work. Three final guests end this series, the first, a Mamluk slave, announces a change of tone by commenting on the now considerable pile of inebriated and senseless bodies, stretched out amid the garbage like corpses.
The [final] reward is more comely, and we say that which we do not do. Hence, Ibn Daniyal’s pley can be considered somewhat corrective. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in ESO for personal use for details see www.
Here the faqih transgresses Islamic law w hiie calling on the saint, demonstrating apathy toward the revealed law while simultaneously showing unending affection for a holy personage-precisely the attitude that seems to have displeased many among the ‘ularntf’ of medieval Cairo. Khartoum University Press,pp. Then comes a symmetrical scene in which Bayram, a friend of al-Mutayyam and supporter of his pursuit of the attractive al-Yutayyim, brings encouragement to the wooer and predicts his success.
Once Emir Wi l has returned from Mosul and thus appeared onstage, he begins a long series of boasts that ends with a refer- ence to Sufi discourse.